Definitions[ edit ] Robert Adams points to the limitations of any single definition of 'empowerment', and the danger that academic or specialist definitions might take away the word and the connected practices from the very people they are supposed to belong to. Empowerment as a methodology is also associated with feminism. Process[ edit ] Empowerment is the process of obtaining basic opportunities for marginalized people, either directly by those people, or through the help of non-marginalized others who share their own access to these opportunities. It also includes actively thwarting attempts to deny those opportunities.
Individual and Organizational Resistance Individual Resistance Individual sources of resistance to change reside in basic human characteristics such as perceptions, personalities, and needs. The following summarizes five reasons why individuals may resist change. Life is complex enough; we don't need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day.
To cope with this complexity, we all rely on habits or programmed responses. But when confronted with change, this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.
So when your department is moved to a new office building across town, it means you're likely to have to change many habits: When General Dynamics announces personnel cutbacks or Ford introduces new robotic equipment, many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy.
Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won't be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards, especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.
If, for example, the introduction of word processors means that departmental secretaries will have to learn to operate these new pieces of equipment, some of the secretaries may fear that they will be unable to do so.
They may, therefore, develop a negative attitude toward working with word processors or behave dysfunctionally if required to use them. Once they have created this world, it resists change. So individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact.
They hear what they want to hear. They ignore information that challenges the world that they've created. To return to the secretaries who are faced with the introduction of word processors, they may ignore the arguments that their bosses make in explaining why the new equipment has been purchased or the potential benefits that the change will provide them.
Organizational Resistance Organizations, by their very nature, are conservative. They actively resist change. You don't have to look far to see evidence of this phenomenon. Government agencies want to continue doing what they have been doing for years, whether the need for their service changes or remains the same.
Organized religions are deeply entrenched in their history. Attempts to change church doctrine require great persistence and patience. Educational institutions, which exist to open minds and challenge established doctrine, are themselves extremely resistant to change.
The majority of business firms, too, appear highly resistant to change. Six major sources of organizational resistance have been identified. For example, the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills.
Formalization provides job descriptions, rules, and procedures for employees to follow. The people who are hired into an organization are chosen for fit; they are then shaped and directed to behave in certain ways.
When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability. You can't change one without affecting the others. For example, if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization's structure to match, the change in technology is not likely to be accepted.
An individual union member, for instance, may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management, he's likely to resist. Because decentralized end-user computing was a threat to the specialized skills held by those in the centralized information systems departments.
The introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams is the kind of change that is often seen as threatening by supervisors and middle managers.
They tend to be content with the way things are.II. Descriptions of types: Each description below starts with a one-word name (e.g. Reformer, Helper, Motivator, etc.) based on the terminology of Don Riso and Russ Hudson.
SURVEILLANCE. UNIFORM DEFINITIONS AND. RECOMMENDED DATA ELEMENTS. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Violence Prevention. Within the company, the real power of these self-managed teams or communities is to work collaboratively to achieve a common goal – to create a new product or service, improve the effectiveness of a business process, or even to eliminate operational inefficiencies.
O’Reilly is a learning company that helps individuals, teams, and enterprises build skills to succeed in a world defined by technology-driven transformation. 2 Self-Directed Work Teams at Texas Instruments Defense Systems & Electronics Group by Richard D. Rosson Submitted to the MIT Sloan School of Management.
INTRODUCTION: The self-directed work team is an autonomous work unit capable of self-management. Such team has little need for direct supervision from managers; rather, the manager’s role is to meet the need of the team through the provision of resources, training .